3rd Crusade- The Seige of AcrePosted: November 8, 2011
Year 8 History
Hello, I am incrediblygenericname (a.k.a. NOT RAYYYYYYYYYYYYY! It’s
R*h*n) and for this article I will be talking about the Holy Wars. More specifically, the Seige of Acre during the Third Crusade. This was one of the more crucial battles during the Third Crusade. This can attributed to it because it was incredibly bloody, one of the last battles, but most importantly contained 2 of the most famous leaders in the Holy Wars, Richard the Lionheart and Saladin.
Richard the Lionheart (1157-1199) was the King of England during the Third Crusade, and led the Christians throughout most of it. Interestingly enough, he was the third son of his father, Henry II, and was not expected to succeed him. However, a series of fortunate events caused him to receive the crown from his Father’s deathbed. Richard was described as being “the first to attack of the last to retreat.” The main reason he was so involved in the crusade was because others felt he was unworthy of the cross, and wanted to prove his worth. After the crusades ended with a truce, he was captured for ransom on the way back home. He eventually died due to an infected crossbow bolt wound.
Saladin had renown within European countries, but was actually not very respected by his own people. Saladin was a legendary leader and practically won the second crusade. He was praised by the Christian West as just, merciful and an excellent warrior. He was not, as the legend may state, killed by Richard in single combat. Saladin was killed by an unknown illness. However, this was very common in those days. Before the Battle of Acre, Saladin captured the King of Jerusalem during the Battle of Hattin and then set him free in exchange that he leave to Europe immediately. However, he broke the promise and rejoined Conrad of Montferrat’s force to siege Acre. This is how the conflict began.
So after Guy and Conrad began to attempt to siege Acre during the Summer of 1188 with their limited force, Saladin was notified of this, and moved his troops to sandwich the crusaders between them and the city. The crusaders’ first attacks were unsuccessful, and thus they began to block off Acre from receiving food. By November, the city was desperately short, as Saladin’s attempts to send them food via his navy had failed because Conrad’s men had defeated it. However, Acre stood strong and fights to remove Saladin were abject failures. At this point, January 1191, the crusaders were more desperate for food then the citizens of Acre were. Conrad promised them food if he married the Heiress of Jerusalem, but promptly forgot his promise and left the siege. Phillip the Second, a Frenchman, took control, but the real turning point was when Richard Lionheart arrived with fresh troops, siege equipment, and most importantly, his decisive mind. The Muslims pleaded for surrender, but Richard did not accept their terms and broke through the wall on the 3rd of July. Saladin had to surrender, and this time, on the 3rd of July, Richard agreed. Saladin was to give back all his prisoners and the relic of the True Cross. To secure this deal, Richard temporarily took 3000 hostages until the deal was settled.
Unfortunately, Richard claimed that Saladin had broken his promise, and executed all 3000 of his hostages, an act that both sides frowned upon. There was some disagreement, and both sides had different versions of the treaty. However, some historians say that Richard simply did it because he could not keep all those Hostages for his next and final destination: Jerusalem.
BTW: Ripped off namedoesntfi