The Hundred Years War

By Timothy Oertel 8C

Why did this conflict begin? Why was it fought?

The hundred year’s war was fought in France during the middle ages. It was a rivalling conflict between England and France for territorial control of France and the title of king over France. It wasn’t exactly 100 years of war nor either was it just one war. It was a series of small wars and events between 1337 and 1453. King Edward III had land in the north and south of France, when the French king died he wanted to reign over all of France. He decided to attempt to seize control of France through his mother Queen Isabella the former king of Frances sister Charles IV who had no heirs.

Although his claim was good, the French people decided to proclaim Phillip a cousin of Charles as king. Edward was furious as he was unable to do anything peacefully. Outraged, he prepared his army full of ambitious men meaning to plunder France. But it was hard to gather an army in autumn when harvest time was so near, but this would not stop Edward.

Why did this conflict come to an end?

After years and years of fighting, the hundred year’s war came to an end 1453. It began 1428 where England under the rule of king henry VI laid siege to Orleans. A year later a women names Joan of Arc convinced the Dauphin to send her to Orleans to save the French people. She claimed to have been commanded by God to do so and seen visions of her driving out the English. In 1429 Joan of Arc raised moral of the local French troops and countered the English forcing them to retreat. This was followed by decisive victories for the French and they started moving the English back. But sadly a year later Joan was captured by Burgundians and executed.

The French troops liberated city after city and rallied together towards Castillon where in 1453 the hundred years of war ended. The battle of Castillon was won by the French and from there on conflicted ceased.

Who were some notable people in the hundred year’s war?

Throughout the hundred years war there were lots of notable people who made a difference and turned the tide of the war. There was the person who started it all king Edward III who set a claim to the throne since his mother was Queen Isabella of France. All the English kings after Edward III continued to wage war on France; they were King Richard III, Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI. King Phillip VI the fortunate was the first of the house of Valois to sit on the throne. This was due to the fact that when King Charles IV died he had no heir so they had to call upon his first cousin, Phillip. The French kings continued to fight off the English until finally King Charles VII the Victorious ended the hundred year’s war with French victory at the battle of Castillon. One of the most notorious French heroes was Joan of arc who lifted the siege of Orleans and rallied the French troops to victory numerous times against the English. She was the reason the French won and even after she was captured and tried for heresy no one came to her rescue to aid her. She was later burned on the stake by the hands of the English.

What was the importance of artillery?

Artillery was very important during the hundred year’s war and was used by both sides. It could change certain defeat into a lucky victory and was a volatile type of weapon which was overpowered if known how to use. They were mostly used out in the field to fire upon troops on land like foot soldiers, archers and sometimes even cavalry. Artillery was useful because of its range and area of effect damage. You could easily take out a troop of men crammed together marching to your position. Artillery was also used against castles to destroy their walls and break through. The French were artillery masters and used it strategically to aid them in winning the hundred year’s war and ridding the English from stepping foot in France. As time went by, more types of artillery were made and the French even engineered a hand-held bombard to use.

Battle of Castillon

My diorama is a representation of the battle of Castillon occurred on July 17, 1453 during the hundred year’s war. It was a feisty battle between the English and French.  The English had a force of 6000-9000 men and the French 7000-10000 men, this battle ended in French victory and marked the end of the hundred year’s war. Jean Bureau led the French and set up a fortified camp on the river bank that covered their backs. He also set up multiple artillery emplacements within his camp and archers behind his palisades. The English entered battle trying to kill the French whilst they were in their fortified camp. The English archers got a few shots off at the French, but the French artillery and archers pounded at the English men. Once they were weakened French cavalry strode from the flank to slaughter the helpless English army.

The french military camp is heavily fortified with palisades and is still comfortable with tents and campfires.

Overview of the battle of Castillon – English men attack the french camp as cavalry charge from the flank

French archers and artillery attack the english from afar.

Bibliography

http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/hundred-years-war.htm

militaryhistory.about.com/od/battleswars14011600/p/castillon.htm

http://www.batailledecastillon.com/index_UK.html

http://www.longbow-archers.com/historycastillon.html

http://www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/background/100yearswar.htm

General Knowledge

History textbook

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One Comment on “The Hundred Years War”

  1. priscillalan says:

    Awesome! 🙂
    Nice Diorama