8A – The Hundred Years War by Daniel Low

How Did the Hundred Years War affect the countries involved?

The Hundred Years War affected both countries because after the war they both had a stronger, centralized government. The nobles had less power and the feudal system was very close to becoming abolished. The war also helped the countries to improve their war tactics. The war also meant a heavy loss of troops and money. Armies were expensive to maintain and the English also had to transport men across the channel separating England from France. This caused many expenses for England to pay for. The war may have united France but it left them devastated by the loss of many lives.

How Did the Hundred Years War end?

The Hundred Years War ended with the Battle of Castillion. It was considered to be the last fought battle because of Henry VI’s insanity, the war of roses and the loss of military after the battle. The battle of Castillion was lost when John Talbot, the 1st Earl of Shrewsbury attempted to retake Gascony. In fear of John, the French commander, Jean Bureau constructed a ditch and palisade around their camp. The war started when a messenger told John that the French were fleeing from the fortifications. It was also convincing when John saw a huge dust cloud in the opposite direction. Unfortunately for the English, the dust cloud came from camp followers ordered to leave before the battle. With haste, John organized his army of 6,000 and charged toward the awaiting French army of 10,000 men. The French fired upon the charging English with hails of arrows and cannon fire. John was spotted and killed by a French soldier after being trapped by his horse. England was not fit to battle any longer leaving Calais the last English possession in France.

What were some of the key battles in the Hundred Years War?

The Battle of Crécy was the first major battle in the Hundred Years War. The French pursued Edward III’s army to Crécy in Normandy and attacked without a plan. The French were defeated leaving England with a decisive victory.

The Battle of La Rochelle was a fierce naval battle that allowed the French to regain control of the English Channel. This stopped the English from sending reinforcements to Calais.

The Battle of Agincourt is another key battle in the Hundred Years War. Henry V led his 6,000 men toward Calais but an army of 20,000 French got in between Henry and Calais. Henry used a narrow front channelled by woodland to give his outnumbered army a chance. The French attacked in three different lines. The first of which was the French knights who were repelled English longbow men. The second line was defeated because of the mud slowing down their charge and the third line lost heart in battle when the saw their fellow soldiers slain. This left Henry with a strong victory.

The Siege of Orleans was a turning point in the war. Joan of Arc led a relief force and attacked the English. The English retreat and military advantage now lies with the French.


Overview of the whole diorama. The diorama represents the last battle of the Hundred Years War, the battle of Castillion.

A close up of the French. The French have the advantage because the English have to go across the ditch.

A close up of the English. This shows John Talbot, the 1st Earl of Shrewsbury getting killed by a French soldier.