100 Year War
The hundred year was fought from 1337-1452. During this period England and the whole of Europe was under what is known as the miniature ice age. This caused famine in the area and killed a substantial a portion of Europe. The war had made this conditions even harder as the army had to be fed and invasions would throw everything off centre. The invasions were mainly carried out by the r mainly carried out by the army. The war killed many civilians and left cities damaged and most of the country in ruins.
During this period France and England had two different approaches to power. In France the monarchs we gaining power whereas in England the parliament was starting to be astablished further into their culture. The battles found a decrease in the feudal as money started to be more available to the community and instead of having the traditional fief money would be paid. England lost interest in the French cities they had control of. This was because it would be very hard to take charge over the sea between England and France.
The Hundred Year War is consisted of not one long standing war but a series of battles during the period between 1337-1452.
The First battle is the battle of Cadsand it was used by the English to provoke the Flemish people and raise the confidence of King Edward the III. This also gave him and his allies a boost of morale with the easy victory.
The First major battle over the French throne was The Battle of Crecy (26, Aug 1346). This battle was fought on French soil with the English killing the entire French army. The battle ended with the English army plumaging through France and defeating and concurring the town of Crecy.
The Battle of Poiters occured in (19, Sept 1356). England was attempting to take over the throne of France. This happened after the death King Phillip VI (died from the Black Plague). King John had taken over and was advancing to killing Edward (the Black prince) and defeating his army. The French army fought on foot whereas the English army was mainly led by archers. The French army were forced by the archers to get off their horseback and travel on foot as the height of the horse made them easy targets. English won this battle.
The Battle of Castillon (1453) This battle was the last main battle of the hundred year war. This battle was fought with the French army besieging the town of Castillon. This Battle actually occured just outside the walls of Castillon as where the English army were charging. The English troops were met with a wall of arrows/bullets and cannon fire. The Battle ended with the French troops killing the remaining men of the English army.
Who led the Major battles in the 100 Year War?
- The battle of Crecy– England was led by Edward and his son the black prince – France was led by Phillip VI who was the king of France.
- The Battle of Pointers– England was led By Edward (the black prince) who positioned his men on a ridge shooting arrows into the French army (7000 Men). His men mainly consisted of highly trained fighters including veterans from Crecy. France was led by King John who made his men travel on foot across the battle field against the English. The French had an army of roughly 35000 men.
- The Battle of Castillon– England was led by Talbot who led a small army of 3000 men. The French was led by Charles VII of France had an army of 7000-10000 men.
What were considered as a Holy war?
A war was considered as a holy war if it was fought for the church. These wars would be signed off by the pope and sometimes would allow the soldiers to believe that since this war was fought for God and confirmed by the Pope that they may have life in heaven after death.
The Battle of Crecy
English Army- Archers and Warriors
How did the conflict affect both England and France?
During the 100 years of war France had been really badly damaged during the fighting. This was mainly caused by armies coming to raid and the opposition ruler calling in raids while killing innocent civilians. In these raids they often went around burning builds, killings civilians, stealing crops, and robbing any kind of riches they found. Routiers were frequent, whenever there was a truce between the English and French, their soldiers would raid country sides and villages. The constant output of war affected England as most men were out fighting not in the farms preparing the harvest. Armies were expensive and it was even more expensive for England to ship men across the channel. While in battle England had more strategic tactics and by constantly raiding France English soldiers had much more wealth and on the other hand French men didn’t have as much wealth as the English men.
What were the consequences of war between England and France?
The hundred year’s war was fought on land mainly and on the farms. Since many farms were destroyed they had loss of resources. Also when they had raids on each country lots of building and resources were destroyed, If they wanted to rebuild a building they would have the think about the possibility of the enemy coming back to raid and destroy the exact same building again. The taxes in France and England were insanely raised due to the war expenses, and in doing so the citizens of both countries were furious. When the 100 years war ended in 1453 there was no peace treaty or settlement. The French remained prepared in case the English will come back and attack. The English didn’t stop claiming the French throne and they didn’t stop invading because they had lost their country, but Henry VI( English King) had gone really angry and noble factions fell out of the past and the future policy.
What weapons were used in the 100 years war?
During the 100 years war the most famous weapon was called the Welsh (English longbow). It was much more accurate than a normal crossbow but however it needed skill to master unlike the crossbow. The Welsh was a weapon which took years to master or potentially a life time. A main requirement to operate this weapon was you would need to be a very strong person to use this weapon because tension rates were around 100 pounds to fire. Since the arrows fired from this weapon could penetrate plate armor, they could often charge before they reached the enemy lines. The French mainly use crossbows during this time period. The crossbow was cheap to make and had a slow action to reload and lacked the damage dealt. If you left your bow outside rain could easily penetrate it and damage it. This weapon didn’t require the skill to master as the Welsh. Also during the 100 years war Gunpowder, firearms and cannons were introduced in 1375. During the Battle of Castilion, artillery was introduced and this was the first battle in European history of them using artillery.
How the war and society were were affected during
The consequences because of new weapons meant that most nobles didn’t want to go to war anymore, they would often asked peasants and arm them with longbows and firearms and send them to war. Peasants could now earn rewards and become wealthy like the nobles. The composition of armies changed from feudal lords to paid mercenaries. England and France both were able to raise enough money through expensive taxation to create their armies. Standing armies were loyal to the king which made the king extremely powerful., they also defended their kingdoms from invaders while also protecting their king from internal injuries/ threats while keeping the population in check. In general standing armies were very useful for the king and kept most things running in place.
The Battle of Agincourt
My diorama is a representation of the battle of Agincourt which occurred on October 25th 1415 during the 100 years war. This was a battle between English and the French. The 2 armies clashed in a farm (northern France). The English had a force of 7000-9000 men and the French 8000-10000 men. This battle ended in France with a English victory. 8000 Frenchmen were slaughtered in this battle including, many most of France’s senior nobles. England on the other hand only lost a couple of 100 men. The Duke of York and The Earl of Suffolk also were slaughtered. After England’s massive victory King Henry later returned back to England for the celebrations of their win in the battle of Agincourt. Later when the French King Charles heard about their defeat he was furious. The English archers banded their bows and started to join their fellow knights to have a hand to hand combat with the French cavalry. The French weren’t expecting the English archers to join the knights so the English flanked them from around. French soldiers fought hard but the English soldiers overwhelmed them and could easily pick them off. After only 2 hours of battle it was clear that Englishmen had won.
Humanities alive(History Textbook)
By Timothy Oertel 8C
Why did this conflict begin? Why was it fought?
The hundred year’s war was fought in France during the middle ages. It was a rivalling conflict between England and France for territorial control of France and the title of king over France. It wasn’t exactly 100 years of war nor either was it just one war. It was a series of small wars and events between 1337 and 1453. King Edward III had land in the north and south of France, when the French king died he wanted to reign over all of France. He decided to attempt to seize control of France through his mother Queen Isabella the former king of Frances sister Charles IV who had no heirs.
Although his claim was good, the French people decided to proclaim Phillip a cousin of Charles as king. Edward was furious as he was unable to do anything peacefully. Outraged, he prepared his army full of ambitious men meaning to plunder France. But it was hard to gather an army in autumn when harvest time was so near, but this would not stop Edward.
Why did this conflict come to an end?
After years and years of fighting, the hundred year’s war came to an end 1453. It began 1428 where England under the rule of king henry VI laid siege to Orleans. A year later a women names Joan of Arc convinced the Dauphin to send her to Orleans to save the French people. She claimed to have been commanded by God to do so and seen visions of her driving out the English. In 1429 Joan of Arc raised moral of the local French troops and countered the English forcing them to retreat. This was followed by decisive victories for the French and they started moving the English back. But sadly a year later Joan was captured by Burgundians and executed.
The French troops liberated city after city and rallied together towards Castillon where in 1453 the hundred years of war ended. The battle of Castillon was won by the French and from there on conflicted ceased.
Who were some notable people in the hundred year’s war?
Throughout the hundred years war there were lots of notable people who made a difference and turned the tide of the war. There was the person who started it all king Edward III who set a claim to the throne since his mother was Queen Isabella of France. All the English kings after Edward III continued to wage war on France; they were King Richard III, Henry IV, Henry V and Henry VI. King Phillip VI the fortunate was the first of the house of Valois to sit on the throne. This was due to the fact that when King Charles IV died he had no heir so they had to call upon his first cousin, Phillip. The French kings continued to fight off the English until finally King Charles VII the Victorious ended the hundred year’s war with French victory at the battle of Castillon. One of the most notorious French heroes was Joan of arc who lifted the siege of Orleans and rallied the French troops to victory numerous times against the English. She was the reason the French won and even after she was captured and tried for heresy no one came to her rescue to aid her. She was later burned on the stake by the hands of the English.
What was the importance of artillery?
Artillery was very important during the hundred year’s war and was used by both sides. It could change certain defeat into a lucky victory and was a volatile type of weapon which was overpowered if known how to use. They were mostly used out in the field to fire upon troops on land like foot soldiers, archers and sometimes even cavalry. Artillery was useful because of its range and area of effect damage. You could easily take out a troop of men crammed together marching to your position. Artillery was also used against castles to destroy their walls and break through. The French were artillery masters and used it strategically to aid them in winning the hundred year’s war and ridding the English from stepping foot in France. As time went by, more types of artillery were made and the French even engineered a hand-held bombard to use.
Battle of Castillon
My diorama is a representation of the battle of Castillon occurred on July 17, 1453 during the hundred year’s war. It was a feisty battle between the English and French. The English had a force of 6000-9000 men and the French 7000-10000 men, this battle ended in French victory and marked the end of the hundred year’s war. Jean Bureau led the French and set up a fortified camp on the river bank that covered their backs. He also set up multiple artillery emplacements within his camp and archers behind his palisades. The English entered battle trying to kill the French whilst they were in their fortified camp. The English archers got a few shots off at the French, but the French artillery and archers pounded at the English men. Once they were weakened French cavalry strode from the flank to slaughter the helpless English army.