bethany’s manor assignment

heres the link miss Woon my humblest apologies.

http://theendofthemanor.wordpress.com/

 

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The Manor

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 What is the manor?

The medieval manor was quite a large piece of land which was owned by a Lord or directly by the king. After winning the Battle of Hastings, ‘William the Conqueror’ divided the land into manors and gave those manors to his knights and nobles as a reward. Most of the time, the king would rely on his many manors, that he owned, for food supply. The Lord would govern that land under the laws of the feudalism.

The Physical layout of the manor including the fields and buildings

The typical manor would contain: a manor house; where the lord and his family would live, the peasant houses; where the peasant’s would live and the fields on the outer sides of the manor; where the peasants and the lord’s serfs would work their land. The manor house would normally be fenced off from the peasant houses. Many manor houses had a fishpond near them, sometimes if not natural, it could be man – built. There would be many building on manor but the manor house would be the largest. The peasant houses would be grouped together to form a village. The fields and the forest would be around the outside of the peasant village. The medieval manor could be varied in size but normally it would often be around 1200 – 1800 acres.

The physical layout of the manor house

The medieval manor house would normally occupy the Lord and his family. It was the largest building out of the whole manor. The house would be often fenced off (it sometimes could be built on a hill), away from the peasant village. It would normally look like a castle except it was not made for attacking or defending. The manor house would often have a wooden frame and be made out of stone or maybe even brick. The house would contain quite a few rooms which would generally consist of:

  • The Solar – Used by the Lord and his family for sleeping and as a private sitting room
  • The Great Hall – Used by everyone in the manor house as the primary meeting and dining area
  • The Kitchen – Used obviously for cooking, often contained large fireplaces and cooking ovens for cooking food
  • The Garderobe- Used as a toilet
  • The Buttery – Used for storing and dispensation of beverages, especially drinks such as ale
  • The Pantry – Used to store food that wouldn’t last too long
  • The Storerooms – Used to store all the long lasting food
  •  The Chapel – Used by the all the members of the household for prayer
  • The Servant’s Quarters – Where the servants would all sleep

The physical layout of the peasant village

The peasant houses would normally be grouped up to form a small village in the manor. It would often be separated from the manor house.

A peasant house would normally be cheap and easy to do since most peasants were generally poor. It would have a wooden structure and be plastered with wattle and daub. It was a mixture of mud, straw and manure that would create quite a strong building material. The floor would normally be dirt lined with straw. The house would have a thatched roof, the doors would sometimes be covered by curtain and windows would be a hole, since glass was too expensive. It would be a one room house.

Close to the peasant village there would be a:

  • village mill – provided a place to ground meat and flour
  • village smithy – provided farming tools
  • church – provides a place to pray for peasants
  • forest – provides wood

Physical layout of the fields and land (farming systems)

The fields would be on the outskirts of the manor. It would normally surround the outside of the peasant village.

Each field would be separated into strips by unploughed turf (usually about half an acre each.) Instead of being all together, the peasant’s strips of farming land would be scattered all over the manor.

Besides his farming land, each peasant had certain rights over the non – productive land. This was called common land. The forest would usually be around the peasant village. The farming and would use the three field system. Three field system was where one field would be left fallow to gather its nutrients while one of the fields would be planted in autumn with something such as wheat, rye or barley and the other field would be planted in spring with something such as oats, barley or legumes. The fields were overall really important for the medieval times and even now since it provides fertile land for growing crops.

Glossary –  

Serf – They were at the very bottom of the power chain; they were peasants who would have given their loyalty to their Lord.

Feudalism – An agreement of a peasant giving their loyalty to the Lord in exchange for the Lord giving land and protection to them.

Common land – Is the common use of non – productive land.

Legumes – They are beans and peas.

Fallow – Mean to be left empty.

Bibliography –

 

By Priscilla Langi 8C


The Manor

  

  Diorama Images- The Saxon Hall

How the Medieval Manor came into being.

Medieval manors were first introduced by King William the Conqueror in the eleventh century AD when he brought Feudalism to England.  Feudalism was a social system based on someone’s promise to serve a noble or person of higher social standing all their life in exchange for protection and a fief (gift of land).  Feudalism had a lot to do with Manor houses.  Serfs, as well as other servants of the Lord of the Manor, would have to work on the land under the feudal system.

As king, one of the first things that William did was take land belonging to the English and give it to Norman Knights and superior nobles and lords.  This land that was given to them was later called Manor houses, but not before a long list of other events and developments took place.

What was the Saxon Hall?

Before the Manor has been officially designed and built it was called the Saxon Hall.  This was a simple building used for eating, sleeping, business meetings and community gatherings.  The Saxon Hall was a small one to two story building either a square, rectangular or circular shape.  There was a limited amount of space in the Saxon Hall.  The Lord and his family would sleep on a raised platform in beds while servants would sleep on mats on the ground around an open fire.  The Saxon Hall also consisted on a small table and chairs at one end of the room used for eating meals.

Stages and Developments of the Medieval Manor.

The Manor first came to be in the eleventh century AD but was further developed over its years of existence.

In the thirteenth century, the Saxon Hall was further established. Two additional rooms were added to it; a kitchen and a bedroom.  It was built of timber, brisk and stone, making it strong and withstanding.  It also consisted of numerous defences and protections like a moat, making access only possible by a drawbridge.

Many more rooms and developments appeared during the fourteenth century.  These included food storage areas and guest rooms.  By this stage, the Saxon Hall was quickly turning into what it soon become, the Manor.

Finally, in the fifteenth century, the Manor was complete.  Protections were lowered as society became more stable and safe.  For example; a moats drawbridge was transformed into a fixed bridge allowing people to enter without hassle.  The Manor itself was built around a central courtyard and the whole complex included many buildings, family areas and a chapel.

What was the purpose of the Manor?

The early manor was used as a small home and just a place to live in but as it became more and more developed as the centuries passed, the Manor was used to display noble’s wealth and to impress other people with what they had.  It also provided the Lord of the Manor with income and money from the serfs and vassals working on the land.

Not all Manors in Medieval times belonged to Lords and Nobles.  Seventeen percent of Manors were owned by the King, and a quarter of all Manors belonged to Bishops and monasteries.  These certain Manor houses were called Ecclesiastical Manors.  These were larger than a Lord’s Manor and were considered to be more important.

Bibliography

1) ‘History on the net Group’ (2000) “History on the Net” http://historyonthenet.com/Medieval_Life/bibliography.htm

2) Middle Ages, Medieval Manors, http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/medieval-manors.htm

3) New York Times Company (2012) About.com, http://historymedren.about.com/od/mterms/g/manor.htm

4)Ocatavia Randolph, OR (1996) ‘Early English Architecture’ http://www.octavia.net/anglosaxon/earlyEnglishArchitecture.htm

5)David Ross and British Express, DR (1951)  ‘Britian Express’ http://www.britainexpress.com/architecture/medieval-manors.htm

By Kate Rumble 8C


Life on the Manor

How did the medieval manor come  into being?

Manorialism came about during the Roman era. It occurred when the landowners needed to combine the control over both the land they owned and the people who worked it. This was a necessity in the midst of the civil disorders, weak government and barbaric invasions that engulfed Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries. During this time the small farmers and peasants who worked the land exchanged their freedom and guaranteed their services in return for the protection of the landowners who were able to defend them with the military. With this agreement in place the poor and landless were given permanent access to plots of land on the manor where they could work and give the proceeds to the lords.

What did a manor look like?

The medieval manor house was built on a similar, but much smaller scale to the medieval castles.

  • The Great Hall of the Manor House – The hall was intended  for the main meeting and dining area and used by everyone who lived in the manor.
  • The Solar- Used for sleeping and private sitting room and used by the Lord of the Manor’s family.
  • The Garderobe – Intended for use as a toilet or latrine.
  • The Kitchen- They included cooking ovens for baking and huge fireplaces for smoking and roasting food. The kitchens were often connected to rooms called the Buttery and the Pantry.
  • The Buttery- The room in the castle called the Buttery was intended for storing and providing beverages.
  • The Pantry- For the storage of perishable food products.
  • Storerooms- There were often several Storerooms in the Manor House often located over the buttery and pantry. Used to store non-perishable kitchen items and products.
  • The Chapel- Used for prayer by all members of the household. The Lord of the Manor’s family sat in the upper part and the serfs occupied the lower part of the chapel.
  • Cruck House- Peasants lived in these houses. They had a wooden frame onto which was plastered wattle and daub. This was a mixture of mud, straw and manure. The straw added insulation to the wall while the manure was considered good for binding the whole mixture together and giving it strength. The mixture was left to dry in the sun and formed what was a strong building material.

What was life on the manor like?

Lord- The day started at dawn, mass would be attended and prayers would be said. The first meal of the day would then be served at around eleven o’clock. Lords would then attend to business matters related to his land. Complaints and disputes regarding tenants would be settled. The lord would then go out for his daily weapon practice. After, prayers would be said again and a meal would be eaten. In the afternoon the lord turned to hunting, hawking or inspecting the estate. Next an evening prayer would again be said and then supper in the manor house. After supper some entertainment would come from musicians, dancers, jugglers, acrobats or jesters. The time for bed was dictated by the time the Lord or Noble retired. Bedtime prayers would be said and the day would end.

Lady–  The daily life of a noblewoman started at dawn when Mass would be heard and prayers would be made. She would be served by her ladies in waiting who would assist her with dressing for the day. The first meal would then be eaten. After, she would be expected to oversee the education of the upper class girls who had sent to her household. Her life would change if her husband was absent. She would be expected to look after the finances of the manor and supervise the farming and settling of all disputes. After this the mid morning prayers would be said then a meal. In the afternoon she would carry out her housewifely duties including the supervision of meals and ensuring stores were sufficient. Leisure and spare time was spent on embroidery and dance practice. Evening prayer would be said and then supper in the Manor House. After supper she would watch the entertainment with her husband. Following, bedtime prayers would be said  and the day would end.

Peasant- The day started as early as 3 am. Breakfast would be eaten, usually pottage which was a thick soup made of vegetables and sometimes meat. Work in the fields or on the land started by dawn. This included cutting crops for harvest, planting seeds, ploughing, cutting grass and curing it for hay, creating boundaries and beating the stems and husks of plants to separate the grains or seeds from the straw. Outside work finished at dusk, working hours were therefore longer during the summer months. Women generally ate when her husband and children had finished and had little leisure time. After this bedtime prayers would be said and the day would end.

     Who worked on the manor?

The names and descriptions of the Medieval people who worked for the lord of the manor included the following:

  • Bailiff – A person of some importance who undertook the management of the manor.
  •  Reeve – A manor official appointed by the lord or elected by the peasants.
  • Serf – Another name for a peasant or tenant. Medieval Serfs were peasants who worked his lord’s land and paid him certain dues in return for the use of land. The dues were usually in the form of labor on the manor. Medieval serfs were expected to work for approximately 3 days each week.
  • Peasant or Villein – A peasant or villein was a low status tenant who worked as a farmer. They usually cultivated 20-40 acres of land.
  • Cottager: A low class peasant with a cottage, but with little or no land who generally worked as a simple laborer.
  • Servant: Servants were house peasants who worked in the lord of the manor’s house, doing the cooking, cleaning, laundering, and other household chores.

The manor’s rooms

The medieval manor house was built on a similar, but much smaller scale to the medieval castles.

  • The Great Hall of the Manor House – The hall was intended for the main meeting and dining area and used by everyone who lived in the manor house.
  • The Solar- Used for sleeping and private sitting room and used by the Lord of the Manor’s family.
  • The Garderobe – Intended for use as a toilet or latrine.
  • The Kitchen- They included cooking ovens for baking and huge fireplaces for smoking and roasting food. The kitchens were often connected to rooms called the Buttery and the Pantry.
  • The Buttery- The room in the castle called the Buttery was intended for storing and providing beverages, especially ale.
  • The Pantry- For the storage of perishable food products.
  • Storerooms- There were often several storerooms in the manor house often located over the buttery and pantry. They were used to store non-perishable kitchen items and products.
  • The Chapel- Used for prayer by all members of the household. The Lord of the Manor’s family sat in the upper part and the serfs occupied the lower part of the chapel.

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Bibliography:
Websites:
Trueman, C. (2000) “History Learning Site,” http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/medieval_manor_houses.htm
Alchin, L.K. (2008 ), “The Middle Ages”, www.middle-ages.org.uk
Page.L  and  Brin S. (1998) “Google Images”, http://www.google.com.au/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi
Kalif, W. (2007), “Medieval Castles”, http://medievalcastles.stormthecastle.com/
Rosmanitz, K. (1997) “English-Online”, http://www.english-online.at/history/middle-ages/life-in-the-middle-ages.htm
Harvey, G. (2005) “Wiki. Answer”, http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_a_manor_house
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