Question 1. Why did this conflict begin? Why was it fought?
The Hundred years War simply began as a disagreement between the two kings of England and France, William the Conqueror, who was the current king of England, was also the duke of Normandy, thus meaning he also had to pay homage to the king of France. Edward (William’s successor) refused to pay homage to the current king of France (Philip VI of France) which then caused Philip to take back the French land owned by William. This was then followed by Edward declaring himself, not Philip, the rightful king of France, because that Charles IV of France had died without a successor. A claim for the succession had been made for Edward through the right of his mother Isabella, daughter of Philip IV. But the son of Philip IV’s younger brother, Charles of Valois, had been made king.
Question 2. Describe the key battles and personalities of this conflict.
There were many battles during the length of The Hundred Years War, but some of which had determined the tides or changes of the war. Some of which include;
- The battle of Crécy 1346
- The Battle of Poitiers 1356
- Battle of La Rochelle 1372
- Battle of Agincourt 1415
- Siege of Orléans 1428-1429
The Main players within this war:
- Jeanne d’Arc or as some know was, Joan of Arc.
- La hire, military captain who went on many Battles with Joan.
- Dauphin, or King Charles VII.
- Edward, the Black Prince 1330-1376 Son of Edward III.
Question 3. How and When did the war come to an end?
The French Achieved victory in the years of 1429-1453, the war only ever came to an end when the population of France knew of the trail of Joan. So the French lords began to search for peace with the English and the Burgundian.
Question 4. What kind of weaponry would the English and French armies use against each other?
The French and English armies were very similar on it’s state of weaponry, but at different battles, the English used mounted cavalry against the French which caused them to lose on most of the key battles against the English. The weapons commonly used by the armies of both sides where; swords, knights on horseback, catapults, spears and bows.
How Did the Hundred Years War affect the countries involved?
The Hundred Years War affected both countries because after the war they both had a stronger, centralized government. The nobles had less power and the feudal system was very close to becoming abolished. The war also helped the countries to improve their war tactics. The war also meant a heavy loss of troops and money. Armies were expensive to maintain and the English also had to transport men across the channel separating England from France. This caused many expenses for England to pay for. The war may have united France but it left them devastated by the loss of many lives.
How Did the Hundred Years War end?
The Hundred Years War ended with the Battle of Castillion. It was considered to be the last fought battle because of Henry VI’s insanity, the war of roses and the loss of military after the battle. The battle of Castillion was lost when John Talbot, the 1st Earl of Shrewsbury attempted to retake Gascony. In fear of John, the French commander, Jean Bureau constructed a ditch and palisade around their camp. The war started when a messenger told John that the French were fleeing from the fortifications. It was also convincing when John saw a huge dust cloud in the opposite direction. Unfortunately for the English, the dust cloud came from camp followers ordered to leave before the battle. With haste, John organized his army of 6,000 and charged toward the awaiting French army of 10,000 men. The French fired upon the charging English with hails of arrows and cannon fire. John was spotted and killed by a French soldier after being trapped by his horse. England was not fit to battle any longer leaving Calais the last English possession in France.
What were some of the key battles in the Hundred Years War?
The Battle of Crécy was the first major battle in the Hundred Years War. The French pursued Edward III’s army to Crécy in Normandy and attacked without a plan. The French were defeated leaving England with a decisive victory.
The Battle of La Rochelle was a fierce naval battle that allowed the French to regain control of the English Channel. This stopped the English from sending reinforcements to Calais.
The Battle of Agincourt is another key battle in the Hundred Years War. Henry V led his 6,000 men toward Calais but an army of 20,000 French got in between Henry and Calais. Henry used a narrow front channelled by woodland to give his outnumbered army a chance. The French attacked in three different lines. The first of which was the French knights who were repelled English longbow men. The second line was defeated because of the mud slowing down their charge and the third line lost heart in battle when the saw their fellow soldiers slain. This left Henry with a strong victory.
The Siege of Orleans was a turning point in the war. Joan of Arc led a relief force and attacked the English. The English retreat and military advantage now lies with the French.
Overview of the whole diorama. The diorama represents the last battle of the Hundred Years War, the battle of Castillion.
A close up of the French. The French have the advantage because the English have to go across the ditch.
A close up of the English. This shows John Talbot, the 1st Earl of Shrewsbury getting killed by a French soldier.
Why did this conflict come to an end?
The war started when England wanted to claim power over France and France refused to let this happen which then led into one Hundred Years of War. This War didn’t exactly go for one hundred years it went for about one hundred and sixteen years, which means it should be called the one hundred and sixteen years of war. The war was ended when it was clear that no more help was coming from England. Bordeaux surrender in October, 1453, to pay a fine to Calais as the last English possession in France. An English army once again landed in France in 1475. Louis bribed it to go back. The long war as built a strong antagonism between England and France which has lasted since the war ended in 1453. The kings of England still claim to be the Kings of France.
What were some consequences of the war – what were its lasting effects?
The Hundred Years War caused misery over the French. lands were burnt, the population was killed off, and also the Black Death. Civil wars and local wars started there destruction. The destruction of the nobility allowed Charles VII, Louis XI to bring them together. But after the war a new France evolved. The main consequences for england was that they had to many people out fighting in the war that they didn’t have anyone back home growing crops and looking after there crops.